結構化資料是什麼? 數據分析前,重新認識你的資料!

If you can’t measure ityou can’t manage it. – 彼得.杜拉克.

如果你無法衡量,就無法管理;如果你無法管理,就無法進步。因此做數據分析的第一步是要了解資料與蒐集資料了,此篇文章將會帶你們了解結構化資料、半結構化資料與非結構化資料。

 

快速導覽
一、結構化資料 Sturctured Data
二、半結構化資料 Semi-Structured Data
三、非結構化資料 Unstructured Data
四、結語

 

一. 結構化資料 Sturctured Data

假設有一間飲料店,點餐POS機已經與後台的資料庫做連線,而資料庫已經預先定義了每一筆資料要有訂單編號、品項、單價、購買數量與總金額的欄位,接著一筆一筆的訂單就會進到資料庫了,如下面這張表。

所以簡單來說,結構化資料就是如下圖已經整理好的資料表格,隨時可以拿來做數據分析。結構化資料是指儲存在關聯式資料庫(MySQL, Oracle等…)的資料,需要先定義欄位,才能夠儲存資料。

有一些人也會使用Excel 表格來蒐集資料,並事先定義每一個欄位能夠輸入什麼資料,這樣也屬於結構化資料。

結構化資料的優點是查詢資料快速,使用的存儲空間少;缺點是拓展新的欄位比較麻煩,在資料交換上的規定也比較嚴格。

 

我們可以一句話來定義結構化資料,先有結構,再有資料

訂單編號 品項 單價 購買數量 總金額
A001 紅茶 30 5 150
A001 綠茶 30 2 60
A001 奶茶 60 3 180
A002 紅茶 30 1 30
A002 綠茶 30 3 90
A002 奶茶 60 2 120
A003 紅茶 30 4 120

 


二. 半結構化資料 Semi-Structured Data

半結構化資料如CSV、JSON與XML,皆便於資料交換,其特性同時具備欄位概念與欄位可拓展性,因此半結構化資料除了可以透過欄位來查詢到資料外,還能根據使用者的需求來增減欄位。

台灣的政府資料開放平台就經常提供CSV、JSON與XML的資料。從以上的範例拿出兩列來舉例,假設要在第一筆訂單加入糖度欄位,第二筆訂單加入冰塊的欄位,使用半結構化資料就相當的方便,不需要在兩筆都補上糖度與冰塊的欄位,如以下XML與JSON的範例。

我們可以一句話來定義結構化資料,先有資料,再有結構

XML範例

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<root>
  <row>
    <order>A001</order>
    <item>紅茶</item>
    <sugar_level>25%</sugar_level>  <!-- 只增加糖度欄位 -->
    <unit_price>30</unit_price>
    <quantity>5</quantity>
    <total_amount>150</total_amount>
  </row>
  <row>
    <order>A002</order>
    <item>綠茶</item>
    <ice_level>25%</ice_level>  <!-- 只增加冰塊欄位 -->
    <unit_price>30</unit_price>
    <quantity>3</quantity>
    <total_amount>90</total_amount>
  </row>
</root>

JSON範例

{
  "table": {
    "row": [
      {
        "order": "A001",
        "item": "紅茶",
        "sugar_level": "25%",  <-- 只增加糖度欄位
        "unit_price": "30",
        "quantity": "5",
        "total_amount": "150"
      },
      {
        "order": "A002",
        "item": "綠茶",
        "ice_level": "25%",  <-- 只增加冰塊欄位
        "unit_price": "30",
        "quantity": "3",
        "total_amount": "90"
      }
    ]
  }
}


三. 非結構化資料 Unstructured Data

非結構化資料指的是未經整理過的資料,也就是資料的本質。常見的文字、圖片、音樂、影片、PDF、網頁等…,都屬於非結構化資料。

要有結構化資料才能做數據分析,最近很夯的網頁爬蟲程式就是將網頁上的非結構化資料爬取下來,並整理成結構化資料,以進行後續的數據分析應用。如以下範例,從批踢踢上將發文日期、作者、主題與回復人數爬取下來,並整理成結構化資料。

非結構化資料

 


四. 結語

從以上的介紹大家可以了解到非結構化資料就是資料的本質,再根據需求從非結構化資料擷取出結構化資料,以進行後續的數據分析應用,而半結構化資料大多是用於資料交換。

結構化資料

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